×

Projection functions for eye detection. (English) Zbl 1056.68585

Summary: The generalized projection function (GPF) is defined. Both the integral projection function (IPF) and the variance projection function (VPF) can be viewed as special cases of GPF. Another special case of GPF, i.e. the hybrid projection function (HPF), is developed through experimentally determining the optimal parameters of GPF. Experiments on three face databases show that IPF, VPF, and HPF are all effective in eye detection. Nevertheless, HPF is better than VPF, while VPF is better than IPF. Moreover, IPF is found to be more effective on occidental than on oriental faces, and VPF is more effective on oriental than on occidental faces. Analysis of the detections shows that this effect may be owed to the shadow of the noses and eyeholes of different races of people.

MSC:

68T10 Pattern recognition, speech recognition
PDFBibTeX XMLCite
Full Text: DOI

References:

[1] Yang, M.-H.; Kriegman, D. J.; Ahuja, N., Detecting faces in imagesa survey, IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell., 24, 1, 34-58 (2002)
[2] Chellappa, R.; Wilson, C. L.; Sirohey, S., Human and machine recognition of facesa survey, Proc. IEEE, 83, 5, 705-740 (1995)
[4] Brunelli, R.; Poggio, T., Face recognitionfeatures versus templates, IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell., 15, 10, 1042-1052 (1993)
[5] Huang, J.; Wechsler, H., Visual routines for eye location using learning and evolution, IEEE Trans. Evolut. Comput., 4, 1, 73-82 (2000)
[8] Yuille, A. L.; Hallinan, P. W.; Cohen, D. S., Feature extraction from faces using deformable templates, Int. J. Comp. Vision, 8, 2, 99-111 (1992)
[9] Lam, K. M.; Yan, H., Locating and extracting the eye in human face images, Pattern Recognition, 29, 5, 771-779 (1996)
[10] Feng, G. C.; Yuen, P. C., Variance projection function and its application to eye detection for human face recognition, Pattern Recognition Lett., 19, 9, 899-906 (1998)
[11] Feng, G. C.; Yuen, P. C., Multi-cues eye detection on gray intensity image, Pattern Recognition, 34, 5, 1033-1046 (2001) · Zbl 1006.68855
[17] Wu, J.; Zhou, Z.-H., Efficient face candidates selector for face detection, Pattern Recognition, 36, 5, 1175-1186 (2003)
This reference list is based on information provided by the publisher or from digital mathematics libraries. Its items are heuristically matched to zbMATH identifiers and may contain data conversion errors. In some cases that data have been complemented/enhanced by data from zbMATH Open. This attempts to reflect the references listed in the original paper as accurately as possible without claiming completeness or a perfect matching.