zbMATH — the first resource for mathematics

Geometry Search for the term Geometry in any field. Queries are case-independent.
Funct* Wildcard queries are specified by * (e.g. functions, functorial, etc.). Otherwise the search is exact.
"Topological group" Phrases (multi-words) should be set in "straight quotation marks".
au: Bourbaki & ti: Algebra Search for author and title. The and-operator & is default and can be omitted.
Chebyshev | Tschebyscheff The or-operator | allows to search for Chebyshev or Tschebyscheff.
"Quasi* map*" py: 1989 The resulting documents have publication year 1989.
so: Eur* J* Mat* Soc* cc: 14 Search for publications in a particular source with a Mathematics Subject Classification code (cc) in 14.
"Partial diff* eq*" ! elliptic The not-operator ! eliminates all results containing the word elliptic.
dt: b & au: Hilbert The document type is set to books; alternatively: j for journal articles, a for book articles.
py: 2000-2015 cc: (94A | 11T) Number ranges are accepted. Terms can be grouped within (parentheses).
la: chinese Find documents in a given language. ISO 639-1 language codes can also be used.

a & b logic and
a | b logic or
!ab logic not
abc* right wildcard
"ab c" phrase
(ab c) parentheses
any anywhere an internal document identifier
au author, editor ai internal author identifier
ti title la language
so source ab review, abstract
py publication year rv reviewer
cc MSC code ut uncontrolled term
dt document type (j: journal article; b: book; a: book article)
Fault-tolerant wireless sensor network routing protocols for the supervision of context-aware physical environments. (English) Zbl 1096.68541
Summary: Applications that require fine-grain monitoring of physical environments subjected to critical conditions, such as fire, leaking of toxic gases and explosions, pose a great challenge to sensor network protocols. These networks have to provide a fast, reliable, fault-tolerant and energy-aware channel for events diffusion, which meets the requirements of query-based, event-driven and periodic sensor networks application scenarios. These requirements have to be met even in the presence of emergency conditions that can lead to node failures and path disruption to the sink. This paper proposes two routing protocols: Periodic, Event-driven and Query-based protocol (PEQ) and its variation CPEQ, two fault-tolerant and low-latency algorithms that meet sensor network requirements for critical conditions supervision in context-aware physical environments. While PEQ can provide low latency for event notification, fast broken path reconfiguration, and high reliability in the delivery of event packets for low-network data traffic, CPEQ is a cluster-based routing protocol that groups sensor nodes to efficiently relay the sensed data to the sink by uniformly distributing energy dissipation among the nodes and reducing latency for high-network data traffic (typical in emergency situations). PEQ and its variant CPEQ use the publish/subscribe paradigm to disseminate requests across the network. We discuss both PEQ and CPEQ protocols, their implementation, and report on the performance results of several scenarios using NS-2 simulator. The results obtained are compared with the well-known Directed Diffusion (DD) protocol, and show that our proposed algorithms exhibit a clear indication to meet the constraints and requirements of critical condition supervision in context-aware physical environments. Our results indicate that PEQ outperforms DD in the average delay since it uses the shortest path for the delivery of packets and speed up new subscriptions by using the reverse path used for event notification packets. CPEQ also outperforms DD in both the average delay and in the packet delivery ratio when the network scales up.

68M12Network protocols
Full Text: DOI