How to confuse with statistics or: the use and misuse of conditional probabilities. (English) Zbl 1100.62531

Summary: This article shows by various examples how consumers of statistical information may be confused when this information is presented in terms of conditional probabilities. It also shows how this confusion helps others to lie with statistics, and it suggests both confusion and lies can be exposed by using alternative modes of conveying statistical information.


62A01 Foundations and philosophical topics in statistics
62E15 Exact distribution theory in statistics
Full Text: DOI


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