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Proper and improper multiple imputation (with discussions and rejoinder). (English) Zbl 1114.62323
Summary: Multiple imputation has become viewed as a general solution to missing data problems in statistics. However, in order to lead to consistent asymptotically normal estimators, correct variance estimators and valid tests, the imputations must be proper. So far it seems that only Bayesian multiple imputation, i.e. using a Bayesian predictive distribution to generate the imputations, or approximately Bayesian multiple imputations has been shown to lead to proper imputations in some settings. In this paper, we shall see that Bayesian multiple imputation does not generally lead to proper multiple imputations. Furthermore, it will be argued that for general statistical use, Bayesian multiple imputation is inefficient even when it is proper.

##### MSC:
 62F15 Bayesian inference
##### Keywords:
Missing data; Multiple imputation; Congeniality; Efficiency
Full Text:
##### References:
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