Sharing secrets in stego images with authentication. (English) Zbl 1147.68503

Summary: Recently, Lin and Tsai and Yang et al. proposed secret image sharing schemes with steganography and authentication, which divide a secret image into the shadows and embed the produced shadows in the cover images to form the stego images so as to be transmitted to authorized recipients securely. In addition, these schemes also involve their authentication mechanisms to verify the integrity of the stego images such that the secret image can be restored correctly. Unfortunately, these schemes still have two shortcomings. One is that the weak authentication cannot well protect the integrity of the stego images, so the secret image cannot be recovered completely. The other shortcoming is that the visual quality of the stego images is not good enough. To overcome such drawbacks, in this paper, we propose a novel secret image sharing scheme combining steganography and authentication based on Chinese remainder theorem. The proposed scheme not only improves the authentication ability but also enhances the visual quality of the stego images. The experimental results show that the proposed scheme is superior to the previously existing methods.


68P25 Data encryption (aspects in computer science)
68U10 Computing methodologies for image processing
94A62 Authentication, digital signatures and secret sharing
Full Text: DOI


[1] Noar, N.; Shamir, A., Visual Cryptography, Advances in Cryptology: Eurocrypt’94 (1995), Springer: Springer Berlin, Germany, pp. 1-12 · Zbl 0878.94048
[2] Stinson, D. R., Visual cryptography and threshold schemes, IEEE Potentials, 18, 1, 13-16 (1999)
[3] Shyu, S. J., Efficient visual secret sharing scheme for color images, Pattern Recognition, 39, 5, 866-880 (2006) · Zbl 1105.68454
[4] Yang, C. N.; Chen, T. S., Aspect ratio invariant visual secret sharing schemes with minimum pixel expansion, Pattern Recognition, 26, 2, 193-206 (2005)
[5] Blakley, G. R., Safeguarding cryptographic keys, (Proceedings of the National Computer Conference (1979), American Federation of Information Processing Societies: American Federation of Information Processing Societies NY, USA), 313-317
[6] Shamir, A., How to share a secret, Commun. ACM, 22, 11, 612-613 (1979) · Zbl 0414.94021
[7] Yang, C. N.; Chen, T. S., Reduce shadow size in aspect ratio invariant visual secret sharing schemes using a square block-wise operation, Pattern Recognition, 39, 7, 1300-1314 (2006) · Zbl 1095.68677
[8] Thien, C. C.; Lin, J. C., An image-sharing method with user-friendly shadow images, IEEE Trans. Circuits Systems, 13, 12, 1161-1169 (2003)
[9] Yang, C. N.; Yu, K. H.; Lukac, R., User-friendly image sharing using polynomials with different primes, Int. J. Imaging Systems Technol., 17, 1, 40-47 (2007)
[10] Lin, C. C.; Tsai, W. H., Secret image sharing with steganography and authentication, J. Systems Software, 73, 3, 405-414 (2004)
[11] Wu, Y. S.; Thien, C. C.; Lin, J. C., Sharing and hiding secret images with size constraint, Pattern Recognition, 37, 7, 1377-1385 (2004)
[12] Yang, C. N.; Chen, T. S.; Yu, K. H.; Wang, C. C., Improvements of image sharing with steganography and authentication, J. Systems Software, 80, 7, 1070-1076 (2007)
[13] Chang, C. C.; Chen, T. S.; Chung, L. Z., A steganographic method based upon JPEG and quantization table modification, Inf. Sci., 141, 1-2, 123-138 (2002) · Zbl 1021.68589
[14] Johnson, N. F.; Jajodia, S., Exploring steganography: seeing the unseen, IEEE Comput., 31, 2, 26-34 (1998)
[15] Marvel, L. M.; Boncelet, C. G.; Retter, C. T., Spread spectrum image steganography, IEEE Trans. Image Process., 8, 8, 1075-1083 (1999)
[16] Wu, D. C.; Tsai, W. H., A steganographic method for images by pixel-value differencing, Pattern Recognition Lett, 24, 9-10, 1613-1626 (2003) · Zbl 1048.68040
[17] Chan, C. K.; Cheng, L. M., Hiding data in images by simple LSB substitution, Pattern Recognition, 37, 3, 474-496 (2004) · Zbl 1072.68534
[18] Chang, C. C.; Hsiao, J. Y.; Chan, C. S., Finding optimal least-significant-bits substitution in image hiding by dynamic programming strategy, Pattern Recognition, 36, 7, 1583-1595 (2003)
[19] Wang, R. Z.; Lin, C. F.; Lin, J. C., Image hiding by optimal LSB substitution and genetic algorithm, Pattern Recognition, 34, 3, 671-683 (2001) · Zbl 1012.68882
[20] Chang, C. C.; Chan, C. S.; Fan, Y. H., Image hiding scheme with modulus function and dynamic programming, Pattern Recognition, 39, 6, 1155-1167 (2006) · Zbl 1096.68756
[21] Thien, C. C.; Lin, J. C., A simple and high-hiding capacity method for hiding digit-by-digit data in images based on modulus function, Pattern Recognition, 36, 12, 2875-2881 (2003) · Zbl 1059.68154
[22] Wang, S. J., Steganography of capacity required using modulo operator for embedding secret image, Appl. Math. Comput., 164, 1, 99-116 (2005) · Zbl 1070.94020
[23] Thien, C. C.; Lin, J. C., Secret image sharing, Comput. Graphics, 26, 5, 765-770 (2002)
This reference list is based on information provided by the publisher or from digital mathematics libraries. Its items are heuristically matched to zbMATH identifiers and may contain data conversion errors. In some cases that data have been complemented/enhanced by data from zbMATH Open. This attempts to reflect the references listed in the original paper as accurately as possible without claiming completeness or a perfect matching.