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**Optimization based on symbiotic multi-species coevolution.**
*(English)*
Zbl 1152.92014

Summary: This paper presents a general optimization model gleaning ideas from the coevolution of symbiotic species in natural ecosystems. Species extinction and speciation events are also considered in this model to tie it closer to natural evolution, as well as improve the algorithm robustness. This model is instantiated as a novel multi-species optimizer, namely PS\(^{2}\)O, which extends the dynamics of the canonical PSO algorithm by adding a significant ingredient that takes into account the symbiotic coevolution between species. When tested against benchmark functions, the PS\(^{2}\)O markedly outperforms the canonical PSO algorithm in terms of accuracy, robustness and convergence speed.

### MSC:

92D15 | Problems related to evolution |

92D40 | Ecology |

90C59 | Approximation methods and heuristics in mathematical programming |

### Software:

MCPSO
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\textit{H. Chen} and \textit{Y. Zhu}, Appl. Math. Comput. 205, No. 1, 47--60 (2008; Zbl 1152.92014)

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### References:

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