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**Extensions of compressed sensing.**
*(English)*
Zbl 1163.94399

Summary: We study the notion of compressed sensing (CS) as put forward by Donoho, Candes, Tao and others. The notion proposes a signal or image, unknown but supposed to be compressible by a known transform, (e.g. wavelet or Fourier), can be subjected to fewer measurements than the nominal number of data points, and yet be accurately reconstructed. The samples are nonadaptive and measure ‘random’ linear combinations of the transform coefficients. Approximate reconstruction is obtained by solving for the transform coefficients consistent with measured data and having the smallest possible \(\ell ^{1}\) norm.

We present initial ‘proof-of-concept’ examples in the favorable case where the vast majority of the transform coefficients are zero. We continue with a series of numerical experiments, for the setting of \(\ell^p\)-sparsity, in which the object has all coefficients nonzero, but the coefficients obey an \(\ell^p\) bound, for some \(p \in (0,1]\). The reconstruction errors obey the inequalities paralleling the theory, seemingly with well-behaved constants.We report that several workable families of ‘random’ linear combinations all behave equivalently, including random spherical, random signs, partial Fourier and partial Hadamard.We next consider how these ideas can be used to model problems in spectroscopy and image processing, and in synthetic examples see that the reconstructions from CS are often visually “noisy”. To suppress this noise we post-process using translation-invariant denoising, and find the visual appearance considerably improved.We also consider a multiscale deployment of compressed sensing, in which various scales are segregated and CS applied separately to each; this gives much better quality reconstructions than a literal deployment of the CS methodology.These results show that, when appropriately deployed in a favorable setting, the CS framework is able to save significantly over traditional sampling, and there are many useful extensions of the basic idea.

We present initial ‘proof-of-concept’ examples in the favorable case where the vast majority of the transform coefficients are zero. We continue with a series of numerical experiments, for the setting of \(\ell^p\)-sparsity, in which the object has all coefficients nonzero, but the coefficients obey an \(\ell^p\) bound, for some \(p \in (0,1]\). The reconstruction errors obey the inequalities paralleling the theory, seemingly with well-behaved constants.We report that several workable families of ‘random’ linear combinations all behave equivalently, including random spherical, random signs, partial Fourier and partial Hadamard.We next consider how these ideas can be used to model problems in spectroscopy and image processing, and in synthetic examples see that the reconstructions from CS are often visually “noisy”. To suppress this noise we post-process using translation-invariant denoising, and find the visual appearance considerably improved.We also consider a multiscale deployment of compressed sensing, in which various scales are segregated and CS applied separately to each; this gives much better quality reconstructions than a literal deployment of the CS methodology.These results show that, when appropriately deployed in a favorable setting, the CS framework is able to save significantly over traditional sampling, and there are many useful extensions of the basic idea.

### MSC:

94A12 | Signal theory (characterization, reconstruction, filtering, etc.) |