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Hierarchical Bayesian inference for ill-posed problems via variational method. (English) Zbl 1198.65189

Authors’ abstract: This paper investigates a novel approximate Bayesian inference procedure for numerically solving inverse problems. A hierarchical formulation which determines automatically the regularization parameter and the noise level together with the inverse solution is adopted. The framework is of variational type, and it can deliver the inverse solution and regularization parameter together with their uncertainties calibrated. It approximates the posteriori probability distribution by separable distributions based on Kullback-Leibler divergence.
Two approximations are derived within the framework, and some theoretical properties, e.g. variance estimate and consistency, are also provided. Algorithms for their efficient numerical realization are described, and their convergence properties are also discussed. Extensions to nonquadratic regularization/nonlinear forward models are also briefly studied. Numerical results for linear and nonlinear Cauchy-type problems arising in heat conduction with both smooth and nonsmooth solutions are presented for the proposed method, and compared with that by Markov chain Monte Carlo. The results illustrate that the variational method can faithfully capture the posteriori distribution in a computationally efficient way.

MSC:

65M32 Numerical methods for inverse problems for initial value and initial-boundary value problems involving PDEs
62F15 Bayesian inference
65M60 Finite element, Rayleigh-Ritz and Galerkin methods for initial value and initial-boundary value problems involving PDEs
35K05 Heat equation
65M30 Numerical methods for ill-posed problems for initial value and initial-boundary value problems involving PDEs
35R25 Ill-posed problems for PDEs
35R30 Inverse problems for PDEs
65M12 Stability and convergence of numerical methods for initial value and initial-boundary value problems involving PDEs
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