Reverse mathematics and Ramsey’s property for trees. (English) Zbl 1203.03018

The authors explore the reverse mathematics of various formulations of Ramsey’s theorem on partial orderings. A partial ordering \(P\) satisfies Ramsey’s theorem for \(n\)-tuples, denoted by RT\(^n\)(\(P\)), if for every finite coloring of the \(n\)-element chains of \(P\) there is a monochromatic subordering which is order-isomorphic to \(P\). The restriction of RT\(^n\)(\(P\)) to \(k\)-colorings is denoted by RT\(^n_k\)(\(P\)). Working in RCA\(_0\), the authors show that when \(n \geq 3\) and \(k\geq 2\), ACA\(_0\) is equivalent to the statement “RT\(^n_k\)(\(P\)) holds if and only if the full binary tree \(2^{<\omega }\) can be embedded in \(P\).” They also describe a family of trees for which Ramsey’s theorem for pairs is equivalent to ACA\(_0\). In the last section, they consider RT\(^1\)(\(2^{<\omega}\)), which is a pigeonhole principle on \(2^\omega\), proving that if \(T\) is an extension of RCA\(_0\) by \(\Pi^1_1\) axioms, then \(T\) proves RT\(^1\)(\(2^{<\omega}\)) if and only if \(T\) proves the induction scheme for \(\Sigma^0_2\) formulas. In particular, RT\(^1\)(\(2^{<\omega}\)) is strictly stronger than the usual infinite pigeonhole principle. This work addresses questions posed by J. Chubb, J. L. Hirst, and T. H. McNicholl [J. Symb. Log. 74, No. 1, 201–215 (2009; Zbl 1162.03009)].


03B30 Foundations of classical theories (including reverse mathematics)
03F35 Second- and higher-order arithmetic and fragments


Zbl 1162.03009
Full Text: DOI


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