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On almost distance-regular graphs. (English) Zbl 1225.05249
Summary: Distance-regular graphs are a key concept in Algebraic Combinatorics and have given rise to several generalizations, such as association schemes. Motivated by spectral and other algebraic characterizations of distance-regular graphs, we study ‘almost distance-regular graphs’. We use this name informally for graphs that share some regularity properties that are related to distance in the graph. For example, a known characterization of a distance-regular graph is the invariance of the number of walks of given length between vertices at a given distance, while a graph is called walk-regular if the number of closed walks of given length rooted at any given vertex is a constant.
One of the concepts studied here is a generalization of both distance-regularity and walk-regularity called $$m$$-walk-regularity. Another studied concept is that of $$m$$-partial distance-regularity or, informally, distance-regularity up to distance $$m$$. Using eigenvalues of graphs and the predistance polynomials, we discuss and relate these and other concepts of almost distance-regularity, such as their common generalization of $$(\ell ,m)$$-walk-regularity.
We introduce the concepts of punctual distance-regularity and punctual walk-regularity as a fundament upon which almost distance-regular graphs are built. We provide examples that are mostly taken from the Foster census, a collection of symmetric cubic graphs. Two problems are posed that are related to the question of when almost distance-regular becomes whole distance-regular. We also give several characterizations of punctually distance-regular graphs that are generalizations of the spectral excess theorem.

MSC:
 05E30 Association schemes, strongly regular graphs 05C12 Distance in graphs
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