On the shape of Bruhat intervals. (English) Zbl 1226.05268

Summary: Let \((W, S)\) be a crystallographic Coxeter group (this includes all finite and affine Weyl groups), and let \(J\subseteq S\). Let \(W^J\) denote the set of minimal coset representatives modulo the parabolic subgroup \(W_J\). For \(w\in W^J\), let \(f^{w,J}_i\) denote the number of elements of length \(i\) below \(w\) in Bruhat order on \(W^J\) (with notation simplified to \(f^w_i\) in the case when \(W^J= W\)). We show that \[ 0\leq i< j\leq\ell(w)- i\quad\text{implies}\quad f^{w,J}_i\leq f^{w,J}_j. \] Also, the case of equalities \(f^w_i= f^w_{\ell(w)-i}\) for \(i= 1,\dots,k\) is characterized in terms of vanishing of coefficients in the Kazhdan-Lusztig polynomial \(P_{e,w}(q)\).
We show that if \(W\) is finite then the number sequence \(f^w_0, f^w_1,\dots, f^w_{\ell(w)}\) cannot grow too rapidly. Further, in the finite case, for any given \(k\geq 1\) and any \(w\in W\) of sufficiently great length (with respect to \(k\)), we show \[ f^w_{\ell(w)-k}\geq f^w_{\ell(w)- k+1}\geq\cdots\geq f^w_{\ell(w)}. \] The proofs rely mostly on properties of the cohomology of Kac-Moody Schubert varieties, such as the following result: if \(\overline X_w\) is a Schubert variety of dimension \(d=\ell(w)\), and \(\lambda= c_1({\mathcal L})\in H^2(\overline X_w)\) is the restriction to \(\overline X_w\) of the Chem class of an ample line bundle, then \[ (\lambda^k)\cdot: H^{d-k}(\overline X_w)\to H^{d+k}(\overline X_w) \] is injective for all \(k\geq 0\).


05E99 Algebraic combinatorics
06A11 Algebraic aspects of posets
14F20 Étale and other Grothendieck topologies and (co)homologies
14F43 Other algebro-geometric (co)homologies (e.g., intersection, equivariant, Lawson, Deligne (co)homologies)
14M15 Grassmannians, Schubert varieties, flag manifolds
20F55 Reflection and Coxeter groups (group-theoretic aspects)
05A05 Permutations, words, matrices
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