Heisenberg uniqueness pairs and the Klein-Gordon equation. (English) Zbl 1227.42002

Summary: A Heisenberg uniqueness pair (HUP) is a pair \((\Gamma,\Lambda)\), where \(\Gamma\) is a curve in the plane and \(\Lambda\) is a set in the plane, with the following property: any finite Borel measure \(\mu\) in the plane supported on \(\Gamma\), which is absolutely continuous with respect to arc length, and whose Fourier transform \(\widehat\mu\) vanishes on \(\Lambda\), must automatically be the zero measure. We prove that when \(\Gamma\) is the hyperbola \(x_1x_2=1\), and \(\Lambda\) is the lattice-cross
\[ \Lambda=\big(\alpha\mathbb Z\times\{0\}\big)\cup \big(\{0\}\times\beta\mathbb Z\big), \]
where \(\alpha,\beta\) are positive reals, then \((\Gamma,\Lambda)\) is an HUP if and only if \(\alpha\beta\leq1\); in this situation, the Fourier transform \(\widehat\mu\) of the measure solves the one-dimensional Klein-Gordon equation. Phrased differently, we show that
\[ e^{\pi i\alpha nt},e^{\pi i\beta n/t}\in\mathbb Z, \]
span a weak-star dense subspace in \(L^\infty(\mathbb R)\) if and only if \(\alpha\beta\leq1\). In order to prove this theorem, some elements of linear fractional theory and ergodic theory are needed, such as the Birkhoff ergodic theorem. An idea parallel to the one exploited by Makarov and Poltoratski (in the context of model subspaces) is also needed. As a consequence, we solve a problem on the density of algebras generated by two inner functions raised by Matheson and Stessin.


42A10 Trigonometric approximation
42B10 Fourier and Fourier-Stieltjes transforms and other transforms of Fourier type
11K50 Metric theory of continued fractions
31B35 Connections of harmonic functions with differential equations in higher dimensions
43A15 \(L^p\)-spaces and other function spaces on groups, semigroups, etc.
81Q05 Closed and approximate solutions to the Schrödinger, Dirac, Klein-Gordon and other equations of quantum mechanics
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