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**An evolutionary algorithm for solving bilevel programming problems using duality conditions.**
*(English)*
Zbl 1264.90153

Summary: Bilevel programming is characterized by two optimization problems located at different levels, in which the constraint region of the upper level problem is implicitly determined by the lower level problem. This paper is focused on a class of bilevel programming with a linear lower level problem and presents a new algorithm for solving this kind of problems by combining an evolutionary algorithm with the duality principle. First, by using the prime-dual conditions of the lower level problem, the original problem is transformed into a single-level nonlinear programming problem. In addition, for the dual problem of the lower level, the feasible bases are taken as individuals in population. For each individual, the values of dual variables can be obtained by taking the dual problem into account, thus simplifying the single-level problem. Finally, the simplified problem is solved, and the objective value is taken as the fitness of the individual. Besides, when nonconvex functions are involved in the upper level, a coevolutionary scheme is incorporated to obtain global optima. In the computational experiment, 10 problems, smaller or larger-scale, are solved, and the results show that the proposed algorithm is efficient and robust.

### MSC:

90C29 | Multi-objective and goal programming |

90C60 | Abstract computational complexity for mathematical programming problems |

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\textit{H. Li} and \textit{L. Fang}, Math. Probl. Eng. 2012, Article ID 471952, 14 p. (2012; Zbl 1264.90153)

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