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A three-dimensional constitutive model for shape memory alloys. (English) Zbl 1271.74344

Summary: Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are materials that, among other characteristics, have the ability to present high deformation levels when subjected to mechanical loading, returning to their original form after a temperature change. Literature presents numerous constitutive models that describe the phenomenological features of the thermomechanical behavior of SMAs. The present paper introduces a novel three-dimensional constitutive model that describes the martensitic phase transformations within the scope of standard generalized materials. The model is capable of describing the main features of the thermomechanical behavior of SMAs by considering four macroscopic phases associated with austenitic phase and three variants of martensite. A numerical procedure is proposed to deal with the nonlinearities of the model. Numerical simulations are carried out dealing with uniaxial and multiaxial single-point tests showing the capability of the introduced model to describe the general behavior of SMAs. Specifically, uniaxial tests show pseudoelasticity, shape memory effect, phase transformation due to temperature change and internal subloops due to incomplete phase transformations. Concerning multiaxial tests, the pure shear stress and hydrostatic tests are discussed showing qualitatively coherent results. Moreover, other tensile-shear tests are conducted modeling the general three-dimensional behavior of SMAs. It is shown that the multiaxial results are qualitative coherent with the related data presented in the literature.

MSC:

74M05 Control, switches and devices (“smart materials”) in solid mechanics
74A20 Theory of constitutive functions in solid mechanics
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