Multiphase flow dynamics 3. Turbulence, gas absorption and release, diesel fuel properties.

*(English)*Zbl 1162.76001
Berlin: Springer (ISBN 978-3-540-71442-2/hbk). xii, 308 p. (2007).

Multiphase flows occur in many industrial processes, such as metallurgical, chemical, mechanical, food industries, etc. “In many practical applications gases are dissolved in liquids under given conditions, released under other conditions, and therefore affect technical processes for good or for bad” (from the author’s summary).

The work is concerned with the information on the solubility of oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen and carbon dioxide in water valid within large intervals of pressure and temperature, providing valuable and interesting mathematical approximation functions and validate them. Important attention is paid to numerical methods for diffusion coefficients. With this information, solution and dissolution dynamics in multiphase fluid flows can be analyzed.

The book consists of thirteen chapters, an appendix and an index. The description of these chapters is, in short, as follows:

Chapter 1: “Some basics of the single-phase boundary layer theory” describes the flow over plates, velocity profiles, forces and heat transfer; steady state flow in pipes with circular cross-sections; Blasius solution; Collins et al. solution; von Karman universal velocity profiles; Reichardt solution; transition region; complete rough region; heat transfer to fluid in a pipe; Martinelli solution for temperature profile; practical results on the analogy between momentum and heat transfer; transient flows in pipes with circular cross-sections. A list of 65 references is also included here.

Chapter 2: “Introduction to turbulence of multiphase flows” deals with basic ideas (basic equations); isotropy; scales; eddy viscosity; \(k\)-epsilon framework; a list of 44 references.

Chapter 3: “Sources for fine resolution outside the boundary layer” contains bulk sources; turbulence generation due to nucleate boiling; boundary layers for non-boiling flows; initial conditions; a list of 25 references.

Chapter 4: “Source terms for \(k\)-epsilon models in porous structure” describes single-phase flow and multi-phase flow. A list of 13 references are given.

Chapter 5: “Influence of the interfacial forces on the turbulence structure” discusses drag forces; lubrication force in the wall-boundary layer; the role of dispersion force in turbulent flows. A list of 35 papers is presented.

Chapter 6: “Particle-eddy interactions” deals with the description of popular modeling techniques for dispersed particles and continua; particle-eddy interaction without collisions; particle-eddy interaction with collisions; and gives a list of 16 references.

Chapter 7: “Two-group \(k\)-epsilon models” describes the single-phase flow and two-phase flow, and gives a list of 3 references. These models have been proposed by K. Hanjalic and B. E. Launder [J. Fluid Mech. 593–610 (1976; Zbl 0325.76067)]. This method divides the turbulence structures conditionally into two groups, the first one describing the large scale motion and the second describing the trasition scale motion leading to dissipation.

Chapter 8: “Set of benchmarks for verification of \(k\)-epsilon models in system computer codes” focuses on the average turbulence modeling in rod bundles in an intermediate scale that is finer than the sub-channel scale but much larger than the scale required for direct numerical simulation. The chapter contains an introduction; single phase cases; two-phase cases; nomenclature and a list of 13 references.

Chapter 9: “Simple algebraic models for eddy viscosity in bubbly flow” describes the single-phase flow in rod bundles; two phase flow, and contains a list of 49 references. In fact, the author has very nicely reviewed in this chapter simple algebraic models for eddy viscosity, which plays an important role in the analysis of boiling flows, especially in nuclear reactor rod bundles.

Chapter 10: “Large eddy simulations” deals with the phenomenology; filtering – brief introduction; an extension of the A. A. Amsden and J. D. Ramshaw [J. Comput. Phys. 59, 484–489 (1985; Zbl 0605.76117)] LES model to porous structures; a list of 21 references is given. It is stated by the author that the application of large scale simulation to multiphase flow dynamics is a very new branch of the science and up to now was limited to bubbly and droplet flows only.

Chapter 11: “Solubility of \(O_2, N_2, H_2\) and \(CO_2\) in water” presents introduction; oxygen in water; nitrogen water; hydrogen water; carbon dioxide-water; diffusion coefficients; equilibrium solution and dissolution; nomenclature and a reference list of 20 references.

Chapter 12: “Transient solution and dissolution of gases in liquid flows” contains bubbles; droplets; nomenclature and a list of 116 papers.

Chapter 13: “Thermodynamic and transport properties of diesel fuel” contains introduction; constituents of diesel fuel; averaged boiling point at atmospheric pressure; reference liquid density point; critical temperature, critical pressure; molar weight, gas constants; saturation line; latent heat of evaporation; liquid density; liquid velocity of sound; liquid specific heat at constant pressure; specific liquid enthalpy; specific liquid entropy; liquid surface tension; thermal conductivity of liquid diesel fuel; kinetic viscosity of liquid diesel fuel; density as a function of temperature and pressure for diesel fuel vapor; specific capacity at constant pressure for diesel vapor; specific enthalpy for diesel fuel vapor; specific entropy for diesel fuel vapor and a list of 20 references.

In the reviewer’s opinion this book provides a solid fundamental and comprehensive presentation of mathematical and physical principles of multiphase flows, pointing out the most important practical applications of the problems. The book is very well written and readable. Results of numerical solutions are given in many graphs and tables. The book will be of interest and useful to a wide range of specialists working in the area of heat transfer, turbulence, gas dynamics, boundary layer theory, etc., such as university students, graduate students, design engineers, physicists, chemical engineers, and also to researchers interested by the mathematical theory of multiphase flow and connected topics. It can be also recommended as a text for seminars and courses, as well as for independent study. Some chapters of the book provide a solid background for future research. I believe that the concepts presented in this book will stimulate new research in the area of multiphase flows both from theoretical and application point of views.

The work is concerned with the information on the solubility of oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen and carbon dioxide in water valid within large intervals of pressure and temperature, providing valuable and interesting mathematical approximation functions and validate them. Important attention is paid to numerical methods for diffusion coefficients. With this information, solution and dissolution dynamics in multiphase fluid flows can be analyzed.

The book consists of thirteen chapters, an appendix and an index. The description of these chapters is, in short, as follows:

Chapter 1: “Some basics of the single-phase boundary layer theory” describes the flow over plates, velocity profiles, forces and heat transfer; steady state flow in pipes with circular cross-sections; Blasius solution; Collins et al. solution; von Karman universal velocity profiles; Reichardt solution; transition region; complete rough region; heat transfer to fluid in a pipe; Martinelli solution for temperature profile; practical results on the analogy between momentum and heat transfer; transient flows in pipes with circular cross-sections. A list of 65 references is also included here.

Chapter 2: “Introduction to turbulence of multiphase flows” deals with basic ideas (basic equations); isotropy; scales; eddy viscosity; \(k\)-epsilon framework; a list of 44 references.

Chapter 3: “Sources for fine resolution outside the boundary layer” contains bulk sources; turbulence generation due to nucleate boiling; boundary layers for non-boiling flows; initial conditions; a list of 25 references.

Chapter 4: “Source terms for \(k\)-epsilon models in porous structure” describes single-phase flow and multi-phase flow. A list of 13 references are given.

Chapter 5: “Influence of the interfacial forces on the turbulence structure” discusses drag forces; lubrication force in the wall-boundary layer; the role of dispersion force in turbulent flows. A list of 35 papers is presented.

Chapter 6: “Particle-eddy interactions” deals with the description of popular modeling techniques for dispersed particles and continua; particle-eddy interaction without collisions; particle-eddy interaction with collisions; and gives a list of 16 references.

Chapter 7: “Two-group \(k\)-epsilon models” describes the single-phase flow and two-phase flow, and gives a list of 3 references. These models have been proposed by K. Hanjalic and B. E. Launder [J. Fluid Mech. 593–610 (1976; Zbl 0325.76067)]. This method divides the turbulence structures conditionally into two groups, the first one describing the large scale motion and the second describing the trasition scale motion leading to dissipation.

Chapter 8: “Set of benchmarks for verification of \(k\)-epsilon models in system computer codes” focuses on the average turbulence modeling in rod bundles in an intermediate scale that is finer than the sub-channel scale but much larger than the scale required for direct numerical simulation. The chapter contains an introduction; single phase cases; two-phase cases; nomenclature and a list of 13 references.

Chapter 9: “Simple algebraic models for eddy viscosity in bubbly flow” describes the single-phase flow in rod bundles; two phase flow, and contains a list of 49 references. In fact, the author has very nicely reviewed in this chapter simple algebraic models for eddy viscosity, which plays an important role in the analysis of boiling flows, especially in nuclear reactor rod bundles.

Chapter 10: “Large eddy simulations” deals with the phenomenology; filtering – brief introduction; an extension of the A. A. Amsden and J. D. Ramshaw [J. Comput. Phys. 59, 484–489 (1985; Zbl 0605.76117)] LES model to porous structures; a list of 21 references is given. It is stated by the author that the application of large scale simulation to multiphase flow dynamics is a very new branch of the science and up to now was limited to bubbly and droplet flows only.

Chapter 11: “Solubility of \(O_2, N_2, H_2\) and \(CO_2\) in water” presents introduction; oxygen in water; nitrogen water; hydrogen water; carbon dioxide-water; diffusion coefficients; equilibrium solution and dissolution; nomenclature and a reference list of 20 references.

Chapter 12: “Transient solution and dissolution of gases in liquid flows” contains bubbles; droplets; nomenclature and a list of 116 papers.

Chapter 13: “Thermodynamic and transport properties of diesel fuel” contains introduction; constituents of diesel fuel; averaged boiling point at atmospheric pressure; reference liquid density point; critical temperature, critical pressure; molar weight, gas constants; saturation line; latent heat of evaporation; liquid density; liquid velocity of sound; liquid specific heat at constant pressure; specific liquid enthalpy; specific liquid entropy; liquid surface tension; thermal conductivity of liquid diesel fuel; kinetic viscosity of liquid diesel fuel; density as a function of temperature and pressure for diesel fuel vapor; specific capacity at constant pressure for diesel vapor; specific enthalpy for diesel fuel vapor; specific entropy for diesel fuel vapor and a list of 20 references.

In the reviewer’s opinion this book provides a solid fundamental and comprehensive presentation of mathematical and physical principles of multiphase flows, pointing out the most important practical applications of the problems. The book is very well written and readable. Results of numerical solutions are given in many graphs and tables. The book will be of interest and useful to a wide range of specialists working in the area of heat transfer, turbulence, gas dynamics, boundary layer theory, etc., such as university students, graduate students, design engineers, physicists, chemical engineers, and also to researchers interested by the mathematical theory of multiphase flow and connected topics. It can be also recommended as a text for seminars and courses, as well as for independent study. Some chapters of the book provide a solid background for future research. I believe that the concepts presented in this book will stimulate new research in the area of multiphase flows both from theoretical and application point of views.

Reviewer: Ioan Pop (Cluj-Napoca)