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Efficient implementation of SHA-3 hash function on 8-bit AVR-based sensor nodes. (English) Zbl 07497444

Hong, Deukjo (ed.), Information security and cryptology – ICISC 2020. 23rd international conference, Seoul, South Korea, December 2–4, 2020. Proceedings. Cham: Springer. Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 12593, 140-154 (2021).
Summary: The Keccak algorithm was selected by NIST as the standard SHA-3 hash algorithm for replacing currently used SHA-2 algorithm in 2015. Despite SHA-3’s improved security compared to SHA-2, its low performance in software implementation limits its wide use. In this paper, we propose an optimized SHA-3 implementation on 8-bit AVR microcontrollers (MCU) which are dominantly used for sensor devices in WSNs. Until now, there are only a few researches on optimization of SHA-3 in spite of its security importance. Furthermore, it is very challenging to optimize hash function, especially, SHA-3, on 8-bit AVR MCUs. This is because the internal state of SHA-3 is 1,600-bit which is much larger than internal state of symmetric algorithms (typically, 128-bit) like AES, ARIA, and so on. In other words, it is difficult to accommodate the whole of SHA-3’s internal state on the registers of AVR MCUs, which incurs heavy memory accesses during computation. Thus, we analyzed the structure of SHA-3 algorithm and found that each lane of the internal state can be executed independently for each process in SHA-3. By using this fact, we propose an optimization method which can reduce efficiently the times of memory accesses to the internal state. With this proposed method minimizing the memory accesses, our implementation of SHA3-256 achieves around 25.0% of performance improvement when hashing 500 bytes message compared with the previous best work on 8-bit AVR MCU. To the best of our knowledge, our software is the fastest SHA-3 implementation on AVR platforms until now. In addition, the proposed optimization method can be easily extended to other embedded MCUs such as 16-bit MSP430, 32-bit RISC-V and ARM-based MCUs.
For the entire collection see [Zbl 1482.68025].

MSC:

68P25 Data encryption (aspects in computer science)
94A60 Cryptography
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