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Security comparisons and performance analyses of post-quantum signature algorithms. (English) Zbl 1492.81045

Sako, Kazue (ed.) et al., Applied cryptography and network security. 19th international conference, ACNS 2021, Kamakura, Japan, June 21–24, 2021. Proceedings. Part II. Cham: Springer. Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 12727, 424-447 (2021).
Summary: Quantum computing challenges the computational hardness assumptions anchoring the security of public-key ciphers, such as the prime factorization and the discrete logarithm problem. To prepare for the quantum era and withstand the attacks equipped with quantum computing, the security and cryptography communities are designing new quantum-resistant public-key ciphers. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is collecting and standardizing the post-quantum ciphers, similarly to its past involvements in establishing DES and AES as symmetric cipher standards. The NIST finalist algorithms for public-key signatures are Dilithium, Falcon, and Rainbow. Finding common ground to compare these algorithms can be difficult because of their design, the underlying computational hardness assumptions (lattice based vs. multivariate based), and the different metrics used for security strength analyses in the previous research (qubits vs. quantum gates). We overcome such challenges and compare the security and the performances of the finalist post-quantum ciphers of Dilithium, Falcon, and Rainbow. For security comparison analyses, we advance the prior literature by using the depth-width cost for quantum circuits (DW cost) to measure the security strengths and by analyzing the security in Universal Quantum Gate Model and with Quantum Annealing. For performance analyses, we compare the algorithms’ computational loads in the execution time as well as the communication costs and implementation overheads when integrated with Transport Layer Security (TLS) and Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)/Internet Protocol (IP). Our work presents a security comparison and performance analysis as well as the trade-off analysis to inform the post-quantum cipher design and standardization to protect computing and networking in the post-quantum era.
For the entire collection see [Zbl 1482.94011].

MSC:

81P94 Quantum cryptography (quantum-theoretic aspects)
81P68 Quantum computation
94A62 Authentication, digital signatures and secret sharing
94A60 Cryptography
81P70 Quantum coding (general)
81P73 Computational stability and error-correcting codes for quantum computation and communication processing

Software:

liboqs; GeMSS; Falcon; TCPDUMP
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Full Text: DOI

References:

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