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t-SNE

swMATH ID: 22300
Software Authors: Laurens van der Maaten, Geoffrey Hinton
Description: Visualizing Data using t-SNE. We present a new technique called ”t-SNE” that visualizes high-dimensional data by giving each datapoint a location in a two or three-dimensional map. The technique is a variation of Stochastic Neighbor Embedding (Hinton and Roweis, 2002) that is much easier to optimize, and produces significantly better visualizations by reducing the tendency to crowd points together in the center of the map. t-SNE is better than existing techniques at creating a single map that reveals structure at many different scales. This is particularly important for high-dimensional data that lie on several different, but related, low-dimensional manifolds, such as images ofobjects from multiple classes seen from multiple viewpoints. For visualizing the structure of very large data sets, we show how t-SNE can use random walks on neighborhood graphs to allow the implicit structure of all of the data to influence the way in which a subset of the data is displayed. We illustrate the performance of t-SNE on a wide variety of data sets and compare it with many other non-parametric visualization techniques, including Sammon mapping, Isomap, and Locally Linear Embedding. The visualizations produced by t-SNE are significantly better than those produced by the other techniques on almost all of the data sets.
Homepage: https://lvdmaaten.github.io/tsne/
Related Software: ImageNet; UMAP; Adam; word2vec; AlexNet; Scikit; GitHub; DeepWalk; darch; UCI-ml; node2vec; TensorFlow; LINE; CIFAR; Tensor2Tensor; Wasserstein GAN; R; Grad-CAM; GloVe; Silhouettes
Cited in: 270 Documents
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Cited by 896 Authors

4 Dornaika, Fadi
3 Linderman, George C.
3 Liu, Li
3 Príncipe, José Carlos
3 Shao, Ling
3 Steinerberger, Stefan
2 Bourqui, Romain
2 Cai, Hongmin
2 Chen, Jiazhou
2 Cheriet, Mohamed
2 Cook, Dianne
2 Duivesteijn, Wouter
2 D’yakonov, A. G.
2 Gao, Junbin
2 Gao, Tingran
2 Giot, Romain
2 Giovanis, Dimitrios G.
2 Giovannangeli, Loann
2 He, Yang-Hui Evariste
2 Hinton, Geoffrey Everest
2 Hirst, Edward
2 Hornik, Kurt
2 Keshavarzzadeh, Vahid
2 Kirby, Robert M. II
2 Kluger, Yuval
2 Laa, Ursula
2 Lalanne, Frederic
2 Landa, Boris
2 Le Thi, Hoai An
2 Lorimer, Tom
2 Luo, Hengrui
2 Mair, Patrick
2 Narayan, Akil C.
2 Nie, Feiping
2 Puchkin, Nikita
2 Rusch, Thomas
2 Shields, Michael D.
2 Spokoĭnyĭ, Vladimir Grigor’evich
2 Stoop, Ruedi
2 Sun, Yanfeng
2 Tsang, Ivor Wai-Hung
2 Van der Maaten, Laurens
2 Venkatesh, Svetha
2 Yang, Zhirong
2 Yin, Baocai
2 Yu, Shujian
2 Zhang, Zheng
2 Zhao, Hongyu
2 Zhong, Guoqiang
2 Zhu, Xingquan
1 Abisset-Chavanne, Emmanuelle
1 Achterberg, Tobias
1 Adedoyin-Olowe, Mariam
1 Agapow, Paul-Michael
1 Ahn, Yong-Yeol
1 Akai, Naoki
1 Albers, David J.
1 Allen, Genevera I.
1 Amancio, Diego R.
1 Amiri, Saeid
1 Ammar, Amine
1 Ando, Kazuto
1 Andrade, Adriano O.
1 Andreella, Angela
1 Angulo, Jesús
1 Antonyrajah, Denvar
1 Arias-Tamargo, Guillermo
1 Arias, Pablo
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1 Askari, Hossein
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1 Bassiliades, Nick
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Cited in 86 Serials

37 Information Sciences
23 Machine Learning
16 Neural Networks
10 Neural Computation
9 Journal of Machine Learning Research (JMLR)
9 Journal of Computational and Graphical Statistics
8 SIAM Journal on Mathematics of Data Science
7 International Journal of Computer Vision
6 Artificial Intelligence
6 Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering
6 Pattern Recognition
6 Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery
5 The Annals of Applied Statistics
4 Statistics and Computing
3 Journal of Computational Physics
3 Journal of the American Statistical Association
3 Annals of Operations Research
3 Journal of Global Optimization
3 Lobachevskii Journal of Mathematics
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2 The Annals of Statistics
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2 Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics
2 Computer Aided Geometric Design
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2 European Journal of Operational Research
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2 Applied and Computational Harmonic Analysis
2 The Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research (JAIR)
2 Journal of Computational Neuroscience
2 International Journal of Applied Mathematics and Computer Science
2 Statistical Methods and Applications
2 Advances in Data Analysis and Classification. ADAC
2 Statistical Analysis and Data Mining
2 Journal of Theoretical Biology
1 Biological Cybernetics
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1 Physics Letters. B
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1 Computers & Operations Research
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1 European Series in Applied and Industrial Mathematics (ESAIM): Control, Optimization and Calculus of Variations
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1 Revista de la Real Academia de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales. Serie A: Matemáticas. RACSAM
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