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t-SNE

swMATH ID: 22300
Software Authors: Laurens van der Maaten, Geoffrey Hinton
Description: Visualizing Data using t-SNE. We present a new technique called ”t-SNE” that visualizes high-dimensional data by giving each datapoint a location in a two or three-dimensional map. The technique is a variation of Stochastic Neighbor Embedding (Hinton and Roweis, 2002) that is much easier to optimize, and produces significantly better visualizations by reducing the tendency to crowd points together in the center of the map. t-SNE is better than existing techniques at creating a single map that reveals structure at many different scales. This is particularly important for high-dimensional data that lie on several different, but related, low-dimensional manifolds, such as images ofobjects from multiple classes seen from multiple viewpoints. For visualizing the structure of very large data sets, we show how t-SNE can use random walks on neighborhood graphs to allow the implicit structure of all of the data to influence the way in which a subset of the data is displayed. We illustrate the performance of t-SNE on a wide variety of data sets and compare it with many other non-parametric visualization techniques, including Sammon mapping, Isomap, and Locally Linear Embedding. The visualizations produced by t-SNE are significantly better than those produced by the other techniques on almost all of the data sets.
Homepage: https://lvdmaaten.github.io/tsne/
Related Software: word2vec; ImageNet; AlexNet; UMAP; GitHub; DeepWalk; Adam; node2vec; Scikit; darch; UCI-ml; TensorFlow; CIFAR; R; GloVe; GraRep; Wasserstein GAN; PointNet; Silhouettes; Tensor2Tensor
Referenced in: 178 Publications
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Referenced by 576 Authors

3 Dornaika, Fadi
3 Linderman, George C.
3 Liu, Li
3 Shao, Ling
3 Steinerberger, Stefan
2 Cheriet, Mohamed
2 Cook, Dianne
2 Duivesteijn, Wouter
2 Gao, Tingran
2 Giovanis, Dimitrios G.
2 Hinton, Geoffrey Everest
2 Keshavarzzadeh, Vahid
2 Kirby, Robert M. II
2 Kluger, Yuval
2 Laa, Ursula
2 Lang, Rongling
2 Liu, Guodong
2 Lorimer, Tom
2 Narayan, Akil C.
2 Príncipe, José Carlos
2 Shields, Michael D.
2 Stoop, Ruedi
2 Van der Maaten, Laurens
2 Zhao, Hongyu
2 Zhong, Guoqiang
2 Zhu, Xingquan
1 Abisset-Chavanne, Emmanuelle
1 Achterberg, Tobias
1 Adedoyin-Olowe, Mariam
1 Agapow, Paul-Michael
1 Ahn, Yong-Yeol
1 Allen, Genevera I.
1 Amancio, Diego R.
1 Amiri, Saeid
1 Ammar, Amine
1 Andrade, Adriano O.
1 Antonyrajah, Denvar
1 Aspeel, Antoine
1 Athey, Susan
1 Auber, David
1 Ayensa-Jiménez, Jacobo
1 Ayinde, Babajide O.
1 Bach Tran
1 Baharev, Ali
1 Balamurali, Mehala
1 Banerjee, Trambak
1 Baptista, Marcia L.
1 Baradaaji, A.
1 Barter, Rebecca L.
1 Bastubbe, Michael
1 Basu, Sugato
1 Becker, Suzanna
1 Bej, Saptarshi
1 Bengio, Yoshua
1 Bernardo, Lucas Salvador
1 Berthold, Timo
1 Bhattacharya, Bhaswar B.
1 Bhogal, Jagdev
1 Black, Michael J.
1 Blaes, Sebastian
1 Blanchard, Antoine B.
1 Blei, David M.
1 Böhm, Christian
1 Bordes, Antoine
1 Boubekki, Ahcène
1 Bourqui, Romain
1 Brajović, Miloš
1 Brandman, David M.
1 Braverman, Amy J.
1 Brefeld, Ulf
1 Brockmeier, Austin J.
1 Brodzki, Jacek
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1 Brynjarsdóttir, Jenný
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1 Bulusu, Krishna C.
1 Burkart, Nadia
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1 Bush, Brian W.
1 Cai, Hongmin
1 Cao, Feilong
1 Carlberg, Kevin T.
1 Chan, Vicky Wing Kei
1 Chang, Der-Chen E.
1 Chao, Xiangrui
1 Chen, Chaofan
1 Chen, De
1 Chen, Hung-Hsuan
1 Chen, Jiaoyan
1 Chen, Jiazhou
1 Chen, Jiyu
1 Chen, Mingjia
1 Chen, Zhi
1 Cheng, Lu
1 Cheng, Yichen
1 Chien, Vincent S. C.
1 Chinesta, Francisco
1 Choi, John S.
1 Christophel, Philipp M.
1 Clarke, Bertrand S.
...and 476 more Authors
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Referenced in 68 Serials

16 Machine Learning
14 Information Sciences
9 Neural Computation
8 Neural Networks
7 International Journal of Computer Vision
7 Journal of Machine Learning Research (JMLR)
7 Journal of Computational and Graphical Statistics
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6 SIAM Journal on Mathematics of Data Science
5 Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery
5 The Annals of Applied Statistics
4 Artificial Intelligence
4 The Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research (JAIR)
3 Journal of Computational Physics
3 Applied Mathematics and Computation
3 Journal of the American Statistical Association
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2 Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering
2 Computer Aided Geometric Design
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2 Annals of Operations Research
2 Journal of Global Optimization
2 Computational Statistics and Data Analysis
2 International Journal of Applied Mathematics and Computer Science
2 Advances in Data Analysis and Classification. ADAC
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1 Journal of Mathematical Biology
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1 The Annals of Statistics
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1 Applied and Computational Harmonic Analysis
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1 Foundations and Trends in Machine Learning
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1 Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. A. Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences
1 Korean Journal of Mathematics
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1 Foundations of Data Science

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