swMATH ID: 22300
Software Authors: Laurens van der Maaten, Geoffrey Hinton
Description: Visualizing Data using t-SNE. We present a new technique called ”t-SNE” that visualizes high-dimensional data by giving each datapoint a location in a two or three-dimensional map. The technique is a variation of Stochastic Neighbor Embedding (Hinton and Roweis, 2002) that is much easier to optimize, and produces significantly better visualizations by reducing the tendency to crowd points together in the center of the map. t-SNE is better than existing techniques at creating a single map that reveals structure at many different scales. This is particularly important for high-dimensional data that lie on several different, but related, low-dimensional manifolds, such as images ofobjects from multiple classes seen from multiple viewpoints. For visualizing the structure of very large data sets, we show how t-SNE can use random walks on neighborhood graphs to allow the implicit structure of all of the data to influence the way in which a subset of the data is displayed. We illustrate the performance of t-SNE on a wide variety of data sets and compare it with many other non-parametric visualization techniques, including Sammon mapping, Isomap, and Locally Linear Embedding. The visualizations produced by t-SNE are significantly better than those produced by the other techniques on almost all of the data sets.
Homepage: https://lvdmaaten.github.io/tsne/
Related Software: ImageNet; word2vec; AlexNet; UMAP; Adam; GitHub; Scikit; DeepWalk; node2vec; darch; UCI-ml; TensorFlow; CIFAR; R; GraRep; GloVe; Wasserstein GAN; Silhouettes; PointNet; Tensor2Tensor
Cited in: 191 Publications
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Cited by 619 Authors

3 Dornaika, Fadi
3 Linderman, George C.
3 Liu, Li
3 Shao, Ling
3 Steinerberger, Stefan
2 Cheriet, Mohamed
2 Cook, Dianne
2 Duivesteijn, Wouter
2 Gao, Tingran
2 Giovanis, Dimitrios G.
2 He, Yang-Hui Evariste
2 Hinton, Geoffrey Everest
2 Hirst, Edward
2 Hornik, Kurt
2 Keshavarzzadeh, Vahid
2 Kirby, Robert M. II
2 Kluger, Yuval
2 Laa, Ursula
2 Lang, Rongling
2 Liu, Guodong
2 Lorimer, Tom
2 Luo, Hengrui
2 Mair, Patrick
2 Narayan, Akil C.
2 Príncipe, José Carlos
2 Rusch, Thomas
2 Shields, Michael D.
2 Stoop, Ruedi
2 Tsang, Ivor Wai-Hung
2 Van der Maaten, Laurens
2 Yang, Zhirong
2 Zhang, Zheng
2 Zhao, Hongyu
2 Zhong, Guoqiang
2 Zhu, Xingquan
1 Abisset-Chavanne, Emmanuelle
1 Achterberg, Tobias
1 Adedoyin-Olowe, Mariam
1 Agapow, Paul-Michael
1 Ahn, Yong-Yeol
1 Allen, Genevera I.
1 Amancio, Diego R.
1 Amiri, Saeid
1 Ammar, Amine
1 Andrade, Adriano O.
1 Antonyrajah, Denvar
1 Arias-Tamargo, Guillermo
1 Aspeel, Antoine
1 Athey, Susan
1 Auber, David
1 Audebert, Nicolas
1 Ayensa-Jiménez, Jacobo
1 Ayinde, Babajide O.
1 Bach Tran
1 Baharev, Ali
1 Balamurali, Mehala
1 Banerjee, Trambak
1 Bao, Jiakang
1 Baptista, Marcia L.
1 Baradaaji, A.
1 Barter, Rebecca L.
1 Bassiliades, Nick
1 Bastubbe, Michael
1 Basu, Sugato
1 Becker, Suzanna
1 Bej, Saptarshi
1 Bengio, Yoshua
1 Bernardo, Lucas Salvador
1 Berthold, Timo
1 Bhattacharya, Bhaswar B.
1 Bhogal, Jagdev
1 Black, Michael J.
1 Blaes, Sebastian
1 Blanchard, Antoine B.
1 Blei, David M.
1 Böhm, Christian
1 Bordes, Antoine
1 Borgert, J. E.
1 Boubekki, Ahcène
1 Boulch, Alexandre
1 Bourqui, Romain
1 Brajović, Miloš
1 Brandman, David M.
1 Braverman, Amy J.
1 Brefeld, Ulf
1 Brockmeier, Austin J.
1 Brodzki, Jacek
1 Brunhart-Lupo, Nicholas
1 Brynjarsdóttir, Jenný
1 Bugbee, Bruce
1 Bulusu, Krishna C.
1 Burkart, Nadia
1 Burwick, Thomas T.
1 Bush, Brian W.
1 Cai, Hongmin
1 Cao, Feilong
1 Carlberg, Kevin T.
1 Castillo-Navarro, Javiera
1 Chan, Vicky Wing Kei
1 Chang, Der-Chen E.
...and 519 more Authors
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Cited in 70 Serials

17 Machine Learning
14 Information Sciences
9 Neural Computation
9 Journal of Machine Learning Research (JMLR)
8 Neural Networks
8 Journal of Computational and Graphical Statistics
7 International Journal of Computer Vision
6 Pattern Recognition
6 Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery
6 SIAM Journal on Mathematics of Data Science
5 The Annals of Applied Statistics
4 Artificial Intelligence
4 The Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research (JAIR)
3 Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering
3 Journal of Computational Physics
3 Applied Mathematics and Computation
3 Journal of the American Statistical Association
3 Computational & Mathematical Methods in Medicine
3 Statistics and Computing
2 Computer Aided Geometric Design
2 Computational Mechanics
2 Annals of Operations Research
2 Journal of Global Optimization
2 Computational Statistics and Data Analysis
2 International Journal of Applied Mathematics and Computer Science
2 Advances in Data Analysis and Classification. ADAC
2 Statistical Analysis and Data Mining
1 Biological Cybernetics
1 Journal of Mathematical Biology
1 Mathematical Biosciences
1 Physics Letters. B
1 Physics Reports
1 Chaos, Solitons and Fractals
1 The Annals of Statistics
1 Computing
1 Journal of Applied Probability
1 Quarterly of Applied Mathematics
1 Theoretical Computer Science
1 Journal of Symbolic Computation
1 Discrete & Computational Geometry
1 Computers & Operations Research
1 European Journal of Operational Research
1 SIAM Review
1 Journal of Mathematical Imaging and Vision
1 Test
1 SIAM Journal on Scientific Computing
1 Applied and Computational Harmonic Analysis
1 The Journal of Fourier Analysis and Applications
1 INFORMS Journal on Computing
1 Soft Computing
1 PAA. Pattern Analysis and Applications
1 Chaos
1 Lobachevskii Journal of Mathematics
1 Statistical Applications in Genetics and Molecular Biology
1 Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and Experiment
1 SIAM Journal on Imaging Sciences
1 Mathematical Geosciences
1 Foundations and Trends in Machine Learning
1 Algorithms
1 Mathematical Programming Computation
1 Statistics Surveys
1 Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics
1 Communications in Applied and Industrial Mathematics
1 Journal of Theoretical Biology
1 Computer Science Review
1 SIAM/ASA Journal on Uncertainty Quantification
1 Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. A. Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences
1 Korean Journal of Mathematics
1 Journal of Nonlinear and Variational Analysis
1 Foundations of Data Science

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